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human_rights [2015/05/30 00:59]
benfell
human_rights [2015/05/30 22:36] (current)
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 ===Overview=== ===Overview===
-Human rights appear to have an ancient history in many cultures. In addition to more recent examples, the Food and Agriculture Organization cites the Vedasthe Biblethe Qur'anthe Analects of Confuciousa legal codex attributed to Ur-Nammu, king of Ur, in 2050 B.C.; the Code of Hammurabi in Mesopotamia;​ the Cyrus Cylinder in Persia; and principles established by Ashoka the Great in India.((Food and Agriculture Organization,​ //A Primer to the Right to Adequate Food//, http://​www.fao.org/​righttofood/​knowledge-centre/​distance-learning/​a-primer-to-the-right-to-adequate-food/​en/​)) Apart from the distinction between rights theoretically accorded humans in various forms and those actually accorded humans, the Western conception of human rights dates largely to the Enlightenment era, although the //​[[http://​en.wikipedia.org/​wiki/​Magna_Carta|Magna Carta]]//, which extended some rights to noblemen, dates to 1215((National Archives and Records Administration,​ "The Magna Carta,"​ http://​www.archives.gov/​exhibits/​featured_documents/​magna_carta/​)) and it is possible to attribute the freedom associated with an individual relationship with a Christian God to Martin Luther.((Richard Tarnas, //The Passion of the Western Mind: Understanding the Ideas That Have Shaped Our World View// (New York: Harmony, 1991).)) Noam Chomsky traces human rights from the Magna Carta and the Charter of the Forests to the present day, in which human rights seem increasingly to be allocated to corporations and decreasingly to humans.((Noam Chomsky, "​Destroying the Commons,"​ //​TomDispatch//,​ July 22, 2012, http://​www.tomdispatch.com/​post/​175571/​tomgram%3B_noam_chomsky%2C_the_great_charter%2C_its_fate%2C_and_ours/​)) Modern, that is, since World War II, thinking about human rights, however, seems largely based on the non-binding [[http://​www.un.org/​en/​documents/​udhr/​|Universal Declaration of Human Rights]],​((Food and Agriculture Organization,​ //A Primer to the Right to Adequate Food//, http://​www.fao.org/​righttofood/​knowledge-centre/​distance-learning/​a-primer-to-the-right-to-adequate-food/​en/​)) which the United States both endorses and, in significant ways, exempts itself from.((Noam Chomsky, //The Umbrella of U.S. Power: The Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the Contradictions of U.S. Policy// (New York: Seven Stories, 1999).)) These rights are codified into international law through the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICPR),​((Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, "​International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights,"​ http://​www2.ohchr.org/​english/​law/​ccpr.htm)) its two optional protocols, and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR),​((Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, "​International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights,"​ http://​www2.ohchr.org/​english/​law/​cescr.htm)) among others.((Food and Agriculture Organization,​ //A Primer to the Right to Adequate Food//, http://​www.fao.org/​righttofood/​knowledge-centre/​distance-learning/​a-primer-to-the-right-to-adequate-food/​en/​)) ((George Kent, //Ending Hunger Worldwide// (Boulder: Paradigm, 2011).)) ((Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, "​International Human Rights Law," http://​www.ohchr.org/​EN/​ProfessionalInterest/​Pages/​InternationalLaw.aspx))+Human rights appear to have an ancient history in many cultures. In addition to more recent examples, the Food and Agriculture Organization cites the Vedasthe Biblethe Qur'anthe Analects of Confuciousa legal codex attributed to Ur-Nammu, king of Ur, in 2050 B.C.; the Code of Hammurabi in Mesopotamia;​ the Cyrus Cylinder in Persia; and principles established by Ashoka the Great in India.((Food and Agriculture Organization,​ //A Primer to the Right to Adequate Food//, http://​www.fao.org/​righttofood/​knowledge-centre/​distance-learning/​a-primer-to-the-right-to-adequate-food/​en/​)) Apart from the distinction between rights theoretically accorded humans in various forms and those actually accorded humans, the Western conception of human rights dates largely to the Enlightenment era, although the //​[[http://​en.wikipedia.org/​wiki/​Magna_Carta|Magna Carta]]//, which extended some rights to noblemen, dates to 1215((National Archives and Records Administration,​ "The Magna Carta,"​ http://​www.archives.gov/​exhibits/​featured_documents/​magna_carta/​)) and it is possible to attribute the freedom associated with an individual relationship with a Christian God to Martin Luther.((Richard Tarnas, //The Passion of the Western Mind: Understanding the Ideas That Have Shaped Our World View// (New York: Harmony, 1991).)) Noam Chomsky traces human rights from the Magna Carta and the Charter of the Forests to the present day, in which human rights seem increasingly to be allocated to corporations and decreasingly to humans.((Noam Chomsky, "​Destroying the Commons,"​ //​TomDispatch//,​ July 22, 2012, http://​www.tomdispatch.com/​post/​175571/​tomgram%3B_noam_chomsky%2C_the_great_charter%2C_its_fate%2C_and_ours/​)) Modern, that is, since World War II, thinking about human rights, however, seems largely based on the non-binding [[http://​www.un.org/​en/​documents/​udhr/​|Universal Declaration of Human Rights]],​((Food and Agriculture Organization,​ //A Primer to the Right to Adequate Food//, http://​www.fao.org/​righttofood/​knowledge-centre/​distance-learning/​a-primer-to-the-right-to-adequate-food/​en/​)) which the United States both endorses and, in significant ways, exempts itself from.((Noam Chomsky, //The Umbrella of U.S. Power: The Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the Contradictions of U.S. Policy// (New York: Seven Stories, 1999).)) These rights are codified into international law through the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICPR),​((Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, "​International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights,"​ http://​www2.ohchr.org/​english/​law/​ccpr.htm)) its two optional protocols, and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR),​((Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, "​International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights,"​ http://​www2.ohchr.org/​english/​law/​cescr.htm)) among others.((Food and Agriculture Organization,​ //A Primer to the Right to Adequate Food//, http://​www.fao.org/​righttofood/​knowledge-centre/​distance-learning/​a-primer-to-the-right-to-adequate-food/​en/​)) ((George Kent, //Ending Hunger Worldwide// (Boulder: Paradigm, 2011).)) ((Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, "​International Human Rights Law," http://​www.ohchr.org/​EN/​ProfessionalInterest/​Pages/​InternationalLaw.aspx))
  
 ===Alternative views=== ===Alternative views===
human_rights.txt ยท Last modified: 2015/05/30 22:36 by benfell