If you want me to take you seriously....
W. C. Fields is alleged to have said, "If you can't dazzle them with brilliance, baffle them with bullshit."1 If I've referred you to this page, there's a real good chance I'm not dazzled. Here are some really basic ideas on ways to avoid leading me to take you unseriously:
Quoting unintelligible writings, such as those by Michel Foucault and other post-modernists, does not show that you actually understand those texts. Because such texts are unintelligible, it is highly likely that you do not understand those texts. And if this is indeed the case, then your arguments are, in fact, a form of appeal to authority.
You have not progressed very far in your atheism when you substitute a human for an unverifiable deity. You have progressed even less far when you deny worshiping that being but gush over his or her every fart.
If you're going to scream about the right to dissent when the Supreme Court hands down a decision affirming same-sex marriage rights,2 it would help if you had supported people's rights to dissent from your religion.
If you will assert that the people should be permitted to rule themselves, it will not help if you imagine corporations to be more deserving of human rights,3 and therefore to be more human, than the people themselves.
If you would complain about believers in Christianity or any other religion, it would help if you were more critical of the ideology of neoliberalism, so-called "free" markets, the "invisible hand," and "trickle-down" by any other name.4
Sorry, if you publicize and market yourself predominantly as a 'sex object,' you have no cause for complaint when you are objectified, even when and if you become pregnant.5
If you're going to post crap about what a great job Barack Obama has done as president, then where's my job (figure 1)? I'm not interested in your excuses or his—they won't pay my rent. Where's my job? Also see number 22 below.
President [Barack] Obama has been an unusually strong helper and supporter of Mrs. [Hillary] Clinton, and this is assumed to be linked to interest in his legacy. Successful presidents tend to be followed by presidents from their own party. But it is more than legacy, or loyalty. It is a desire to avoid humiliation. If Mr. [Donald] Trump wins, voters will be saying more than that Mr. Obama’s leadership didn’t quite work. They’ll be saying he was such a failure that they lurched desperately toward someone who’d blow the whole system up. Mr. Trump’s election would be a stinging rebuke, one for the history books. Mr. Obama will give everything he has to keep that from happening.6
In the event, Donald Trump won, apparently due in no small part to the fact that I am not alone.7
So here's a hint: If you're whining about the alleged 'fascism' (a poorly defined term) brought to us by Trump, you should have been as concerned about the neoliberal 'fascism' already directed at the poor.
A serious intellectual endeavor does not begin with the question, how can I justify what somebody said?
Your restaurant review will have a great deal more credibility if you wait until the place is actually open before posting it. (Yes, I actually encountered this with Amy's Drive Thru in Rohnert Park.)
If you're going to worry about earthquakes, then don't move to a region along the Pacific Ring of Fire.
For a few decades, significant segments of academia succumbed to a notion that, in the oft-repeated words of Isaac Catt, a short-lived Communication department chair at California State University, East Bay, during the time I was pursuing my master's degree, "If it isn't hard to understand, you aren't learning anything." Which is to say first, that academia was no longer a place for learning; second, that it had rather become a place for excusing professors from having to explain obscurantist bullshit; third, it had become a place for blaming or intellectually bullying students for not understanding said bullshit; and fourth, it had become a place for immunizing alleged scholarship from critical examination. Academia has mostly moved on but some students still think they can get away with this crap. I'll give you a hint: Not even Catt accepted it from me (and I still, all these years later, even now that I've finished my Ph.D., think he's a hypocrite).
Your essays need to demonstrate a clear understanding of the terminology you use and argue logically from substance. Great names are not a substitute for substance because it is what people do or say that makes them great.
When you post ill-informed comments (often memes) on our political and economic system (see my list of essays on this topic, which follows) which you cannot or will not defend, you have already crossed whatever "boundary" you may claim to set against my supplying a better-informed perspective.
No, your Ph.D. does not immunize you from challenge. And if you think it does, you're acting like you don't even have a master's.
No form of software, artistic, or intellectual freedom appears in the form of licensing. Licensing acknowledges 'property' rights, property is domination, and when you cede domination of your mind to anyone else, you are only 'free' in Orwellian terms.
No, declining to participate in a fraudulent electoral system does not mean giving up one's right to complain about it.
I have seen "magical thinking" understood in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-5) as the imagination that things can be the way you want them to be through the act of believing that they are so.8 This fairly obviously includes such New Age scams as "The Secret" with its "Law of Attraction." And what it amounts to is a way of shirking one's responsibility to help fellow humans by, in effect, blaming them for not thinking the right way, that is, "being negative" or being insufficiently "positive."
Conservatives really are authoritarians9 and, while the relationship between ideology and attachment style is somewhat less than perfect,10 they generally express insecure attachment issues.11 They devalue empirical evidence in favor of so-called 'transcendent' knowledge, which is to say, they knowingly and persistently engage in the naturalistic fallacy. Worse, they celebrate the suffering their ideology imposes as "God's will" or in the name of the market.12
Dominant paradigms are no substitute for actual evidence: Sounding 'reasonable' or adopting 'middle-of-the-road' positions does nothing more than kowtow to the status quo.
When we speak of improvements in the conditions of subaltern people that are alleged to have transpired since any given date, we must subdivide the matter first into the ways in which bigotry has been institutionalized and second into its underlying attitudes. I might concede that there have probably been improvements in the former in some cases for some subaltern groups, but I am less certain about the latter.
I see absolutely no reason to engage with idiots for free. Especially when they're employed and I'm not.
Given a false dichotomy, such as that between a protofascist Donald Trump13 and a neoliberal14 warmongering15 Hillary Clinton in the 2016 presidential race, that both of these choices are in their own way murderous on a mass scale, and that both would perpetuate an economic policy that dooms me to continued unemployment, I do not see and will not recognize a "lesser of evils." Those who insist that we must vote for one or the other of these candidates must 1) provide a compelling answer to why I do not vote, and 2) explain how such a vote does not support criminal behavior. Also see number 7 above.
No one's demagoguery licenses others to do the same.
It is an ad hominem attack if someone rejects your argument because of who you are or who they think you are rather than because of what you say.16 It is not an ad hominem attack just because you've made an ass of yourself and you want to blame somebody who called you out for it.
Fidel Castro, Mao Zedong, Josef Stalin, and Vladimir Lenin were not communists. They were authoritarian socialists. True communism means egalitarianism, not authoritarianism; cooperation, not central planning;17 and the absence of property rather than state ownership.
It should be painfully obvious that to accuse whites of racism simply because they are white; or males of misogyny, simply because they are male; or white males of privilege, simply because they are white and male is 1) its own form of bigotry; 2) an attempt not to persuade or to secure an alliance but rather to humiliate and silence; and 3) a refusal to acknowledge grievances stemming from other forms of oppression, especially including class. Which is to say that these accusers want not social equality but instead to be tyrants on their own terms. See #27 below.
Before opening your mouth about alleged white or male privilege or some combination of the two, you'd better have a real job for me, right fucking now. No promises, maybes, or other forms of bullshit. Otherwise, you're an asshole who hasn't the first idea what you're talking about. See #26 above.
Arguments are supported by some combination of logic and evidence. As a human scientist, I am less authoritarian about what may constitute evidence. But evidence must be open to public inspection18 and a failure to present evidence, even if such evidence is allegedly 'classified,' flatly invalidates the argument. This is true even if you are Donald Trump claiming Barack Obama wiretapped Trump Tower19 or you are a Hillary Clinton-supporter alleging Russian interference in the 2016 election or you are George W. Bush claiming the Iraqis are harboring weapons of mass destruction.20
In addition, I have addressed the failings of our system of social organization, capitalist libertarianism, neoliberalism, market systems of exchange, and of money at length:
- March 27, 2010, It’s not that you have nothing to offer, but that you have no money to offer
- August 3, 2011, Dickens redux
- March 15, 2012, We “need to know how it works” (essay from Ph.D. coursework)
- March 6, 2013, “We have found the enemy, and he is us” — and our system of social organization (essay from Ph.D. coursework)
- May 20, 2014, Money and the New York Times: The problem of journalism as a public good
- June 25, 2014, Money is even more broken than I thought
- July 11, 2014, Sorry, Virginia, there is no such thing as ‘fair trade’
- September 21, 2014, Gleefully profiting from vast misery
- December 31, 2014, Why capitalism is inherently immoral
- January 5, 2015, If it were only human folly
- January 6, 2015, Shaking out the oil industry, and maybe a few financiers as well
- February 10, 2015, In elites we trust
- February 18, 2015, Paying for money with human lives
- March 10, 2015, Gratitude for Daylight Savings Time: An Insight into Wealthy Male Authority
- April 22, 2015, The biggest bubble of all
- May 10, 2015, Turnips for the TransPacific Partnership
- May 20, 2015, Diploma mills and the neoliberal substitution of the superficial for the substantial
- May 26, 2015, The ‘Oracle of Omaha’ goes on believing
- May 27, 2015, Human beings, robots, and demand for goods and services
- June 8, 2015, Market value and human value: Time to take it personally
- June 11, 2015, The TransPacific Partnership and the capitalist revolution
- June 27, 2015, News flash: Mother nature does not respond to market forces
- September 10, 2015, An ‘advanced’ economic system
- September 16, 2015, Positivist and capitalist moral hazard
- February 21, 2016, If markets are so ideally “free,” then why do we hate advertising?
- February 25, 2016, Why I do not vote
- March 30, 2016, The New York Times gets it badly wrong on so-called ‘free’ trade
- May 11, 2016, Obamacare, the neoliberal consensus, and a kid fighting cancer
- July 23, 2016, On the possibility of human extinction
- December 9, 2016, We have failed the test
But perhaps most fundamentally, understand that I combine age with a very high level of education. Treating me like I am an idiot is a very good way to persuade me that you are an idiot.
- 1. W. C. Fields, "If you can't dazzle them with brilliance, baffle them with bullshit," Goodreads, n.d., http://www.goodreads.com/quotes/340982-if-you-can-t-dazzle-them-with-brilliance-baffle-them-with
- 2. Obergefell et al. v. Hodges, Director, Ohio Department of Health, et al., N.p. (2015).
- 3. Burwell, Secretary of Health and Human Services, et al. v. Hobby Lobby Stores, Inc., et al., 134 S. Ct. 2751 (2014); Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission, 558 U.S. 310 (2010); Eric L. Lewis, "Who Are ‘We the People’?" New York Times, October 4, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/10/05/opinion/sunday/who-are-we-the-people.html
- 4. Mark Blyth, Austerity: The History of a Dangerous Idea (Oxford, UK: Oxford University, 2013).; Daniel Stedman Jones, Masters of the Universe: Hayek, Friedman, and the Birth of Neoliberal Politics (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University, 2012).
- 5. Heather Saul, "Glastonbury flag showing Kim Kardashian sex tape scene during Kanye West set condemned as 'misogynistic'," Independent, June 29, 2015, http://www.independent.co.uk/news/people/glastonbury-flag-showing-kim-kardashian-in-sex-tape-held-up-by-audience-member-during-kanye-west-set-condemned-as-misogynistic-10352617.html
- 6. Peggy Noonan, "A Disunited Party’s Successful Convention," Wall Street Journal, July 29, 2016, http://www.wsj.com/articles/a-disunited-partys-successful-convention-1469769130
- 7. Juan Cole, "Why the White Working Class Rebelled: Neoliberalism Is Killing Them (Literally)," Truthdig, November 9, 2016, http://www.truthdig.com/report/item/why_the_white_working_class_rebelled_neoliberalism_is_killing_20161109; David Dayen, "The 'Deplorables Got the Last Laugh," New Republic, November 9, 2016, https://newrepublic.com/article/138615/deplorables-got-last-laugh; Cathleen Decker, "For reeling Democrats, now what?" Los Angeles Times, November 10, 2016, http://www.latimes.com/politics/la-na-pol-clinton-democrats-20161109-story.html; Jonathan Easley, "Seething liberals vow revolution in Democratic Party," Hill, November 12, 2016, http://thehill.com/homenews/campaign/305617-seething-liberals-vow-revolution-in-democratic-party; Thomas Frank, "Donald Trump is moving to the White House, and liberals put him there," Guardian, November 9, 2016, https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2016/nov/09/donald-trump-white-house-hillary-clinton-liberals; Kevin Gosztola, "The Hubris of Democratic Elites, Clinton Campaign Gave Us President Trump," Common Dreams, November 9, 2016, http://www.commondreams.org/views/2016/11/09/hubris-democratic-elites-clinton-campaign-gave-us-president-trump; Rob Hoffman, "How the Left Created Trump," Politico, November 20, 2016, http://www.politico.com/magazine/story/2016/11/how-the-left-created-donald-trump-214472; George Monbiot, "The Deep History Behind Trump’s Rise," November 15, 2016, http://www.monbiot.com/2016/11/15/the-deep-history-behind-trumps-rise/; Brad Reed, "Michael Moore’s tough words for liberals: ‘You weren’t paying attention to your fellow Americans,’" Raw Story, November 9, 2016, http://www.rawstory.com/2016/11/michael-moores-tough-words-for-liberals-you-werent-paying-attention-to-your-fellow-americans/; Robert Scheer, "Revenge of the ‘Deplorables,’" Truthdig, November 9, 2016, http://www.truthdig.com/report/item/revenge_of_the_deplorables_20161109; Maggie Severns and Theodoric Meyer, "House Democrats lament blue-collar collapse," Politico, November 20, 2016, http://www.politico.com/story/2016/11/house-democrats-worry-blue-collar-voters-231635; Joan C. Williams, What So Many People Don’t Get About the U.S. Working Class," Harvard Business Review, November 10, 2016, https://hbr.org/2016/11/what-so-many-people-dont-get-about-the-u-s-working-class
- 8. I saw this in somebody's office, so I do not have a proper citation available.
- 9. David Benfell, "Defining conservatism," April 12, 2013, https://parts-unknown.org/drupal7/journal/2013/04/12/defining-conservatism; David Benfell, "Conservative Views on Undocumented Migration" (doctoral dissertation, Saybrook, 2016). ProQuest (1765416126).
- 10. Spassena P. Koleva and Blanka Rip, "Attachment Style and Political Ideology: A Review of Contradictory Findings," Social Justice Research 22 (2009): 241-258, doi: 10.1007/s11211-009-0099-y
- 11. As described in Daniel Sonkin, "Attachment Informed Psychotherapy," n.d., http://www.danielsonkin.com/attachpsych/attachment_psychotherapy.htm
- 12. David Benfell, "Conservative Views on Undocumented Migration" (doctoral dissertation, Saybrook, 2016). ProQuest (1765416126).
- 13. Chauncey DeVega, "Donald Trump leads an insane white cult — and Pat Buchanan just explained how it works," Salon, December 23, 2015, http://www.salon.com/2015/12/23/donald_trump_leads_an_insane_white_cult_and_pat_buchanan_just_explained_how_it_works/; Bob Dreyfuss, "It Can’t Happen Here... Can It? Trump’s Storm Troopers and the Possibility of American Fascism," TomDispatch, March 13, 2016, http://www.tomdispatch.com/post/176114/tomgram%3A_bob_dreyfuss%2C_will_the_donald_rally_the_militias_and_the_right-to-carry_movement/; Greg Gordon, "Hillary Clinton got nearly $1.6 million from big banks in 2013," McClatchy, July 31, 2015, http://www.mcclatchydc.com/news/politics-government/article29711881.html?rh=1; Connor Lynch, "Hillary is sick of the left: Why Bernie’s persistence is a powerful reminder of Clinton’s troubling centrism," Salon, April 4, 2016, http://www.salon.com/2016/04/04/hillary_is_sick_of_the_left_why_bernies_persistence_is_a_powerful_reminder_of_clintons_troubling_centrism/; Waleed Shahid, "Why We Can’t Bridge the Gulf Between Donald Trump Supporters and the Rest of Us," Bill Moyers, December 10, 2015, http://billmoyers.com/story/why-we-cant-bridge-the-gulf-between-donald-trump-supporters-and-the-rest-of-us/
- 14. Michelle Alexander, "Why Hillary Clinton Doesn’t Deserve the Black Vote," Nation, February 10, 2016, http://www.thenation.com/article/hillary-clinton-does-not-deserve-black-peoples-votes/; Musa al-Gharbi, "Hillary’s atrocious race record: Her stances over decades have been painful and wrong," Salon, April 3, 2016, http://www.salon.com/2016/04/03/hillarys_atrocious_race_record_her_stances_over_decades_have_been_painful_and_wrong/; Jonathan Allen, "The selective liberalism of Hillary Clinton," Vox, June 10, 2015, http://www.vox.com/2015/6/10/8760287/Hillary-Clinton-selective-liberal-trust; Dana Bolger, "Dear New York Times: The Real Reason Young Feminists Reject Hillary," Feministing, December 17, 2015, http://feministing.com/2015/12/17/dear-new-york-times-the-real-reason-young-feminists-reject-hillary/; Robert Borosage, "As Panic Grips Clinton Campaign, The Real Question: What's Wrong with Hillary?" Common Dreams, January 21, 2016, http://www.commondreams.org/views/2016/01/21/panic-grips-clinton-campaign-real-question-whats-wrong-hillary; Nicholas Confessore and Amy Chozick, "Wall Street Offers Clinton a Thorny Embrace," New York Times, July 7, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/07/08/us/08wallst.html; Nick Confessore and Jason Horowitz, "Hillary Clinton’s Paid Speeches to Wall Street Animate Her Opponents," New York Times, January 21, 2016, http://www.nytimes.com/2016/01/22/us/politics/in-race-defined-by-income-gap-hillary-clintons-wall-street-ties-incite-rivals.html; Gabriel Debenedetti and Hadas Gold, "Hillary Clinton gets the Fox News treatment," Politico, March 7, 2016, http://www.politico.com/story/2016/03/hillary-clinton-fox-news-220399; James Downie, "Hillary Clinton’s unbelievable defense of Wall Street contributions," Washington Post, November 15, 2015, https://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/post-partisan/wp/2015/11/15/hillary-clintons-unbelievable-defense-of-wall-st-contributions/; Jonathan Easley and Amie Parnes, "Chelsea Clinton goes on the attack; Democrats ask why," Hill, January 14, 2016, http://thehill.com/homenews/campaign/265839-chelsea-goes-on-the-attack-dems-ask-why; Alex Emmons, "Hillary Clinton Will Be Good for Business, Predicts Chamber of Commerce Lobbyist," Intercept, July 29, 2016, https://theintercept.com/2016/07/29/hillary-clinton-will-be-good-for-business-predicts-chamber-of-commerce-lobbyist/; Lee Fang, "Top Hillary Clinton Advisers and Fundraisers Lobbied Against Obamacare," Intercept, February 8, 2016, https://theintercept.com/2016/02/08/hrc-inner-circle-lobbyists/; Thomas Frank, "None of the Bankers Think Hillary Clinton Believes Her Populism, a Financial Journalist Wrote," Truthout, May 12, 2016, http://www.truth-out.org/opinion/item/36010-none-of-the-bankers-think-hillary-clinton-believes-her-populism-a-financial-journalist-wrote; Matea Gold, Tom Hamburger, and Anu Narayanswamy, "Clinton blasts Wall Street, but still draws millions in contributions," Washington Post, February 4, 2016, https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/clinton-blasts-wall-street-but-still-draws-millions-in-contributions/2016/02/04/05e1be00-c9c2-11e5-ae11-57b6aeab993f_story.html; Todd Gitlin, "Hillary Clinton: On Feet of Clay," Tablet, June 5, 2016, http://www.tabletmag.com/jewish-news-and-politics/204190/hillary-clinton-on-feet-of-clay; Jeff Greenfield, "What’s Wrong With Hillary?" Politico, March 14, 2016, http://www.politico.com/magazine/story/2016/03/hillary-clinton-2016-whats-wrong-with-hillary-213722; Glenn Greenwald, "Perfect End to Democratic Primary: Anonymous Superdelegates Declare Winner Through Media," Intercept, June 7, 2016, https://theintercept.com/2016/06/07/perfect-end-to-democratic-primary-anonymous-super-delegates-declare-winner-through-media/; Evan Halper, "Why young feminists are choosing Bernie Sanders over Hillary Clinton," Los Angeles Times, February 3, 2016, http://www.latimes.com/politics/la-na-clinton-millennial-women-20160203-story.html; Jesse Hamilton and Cheyenne Hopkins, "Hillary Clinton Lets Big Banks Off the Hook for Financial Crisis," Bloomberg, October 2, 2015, http://www.bloomberg.com/politics/articles/2015-10-02/hillary-clinton-lets-big-banks-off-the-hook-for-financial-crisis; Simon Head, "Clinton and Goldman: Why It Matters," New York Review of Books, April 12, 2016, http://www.nybooks.com/daily/2016/04/12/hillary-clinton-goldman-sachs-why-it-matters/; Patrick Healy, "Wall St. Ties Linger as Image Issue for Hillary Clinton," New York Times, November 21, 2015, http://www.nytimes.com/2015/11/22/us/politics/wall-st-ties-linger-as-image-issue-for-hillary-clinton.html; Zoë Heller, "Hillary & Women," review of Broad Influence: How Women Are Changing the Way America Works, by Jay Newton-Small, and My Turn: Hillary Clinton Targets the Presidency, by Doug Henwood, New York Review of Books, April 7, 2016, http://www.nybooks.com/articles/2016/04/07/hillary-women/; Annie Karni, "Clinton friend McAuliffe says Clinton will flip on TPP, then walks it back," Politico, July 26, 2016, http://www.politico.com/story/2016/07/terry-mcauliffe-hillary-clinton-tpp-trade-226253; Brody Mullins and Rebecca Ballhaus, "Financial Sector Gives Hillary Clinton a Boost," Wall Street Journal, May 8, 2016, http://www.wsj.com/articles/financial-sector-gives-hillary-clinton-a-boost-1462750725; New York Times, "Hillary Clinton Botches Wall Street Questions," November 15, 2015, http://www.nytimes.com/2015/11/16/opinion/hillary-clinton-botches-wall-street-questions.html; P. J. Podesta, "The case against Hillary Clinton: This is the disaster Democrats must avoid," Salon, February 28, 2016, http://www.salon.com/2016/02/28/the_case_against_hillary_clinton_this_is_the_disaster_democrats_must_avoid/; Jon Queally, "Clinton Inflames Progressive Base with Choice of Tim Kaine as Vice President," Common Dreams, July 22, 2016, http://www.commondreams.org/news/2016/07/22/clinton-inflames-progressive-base-choice-tim-kaine-vice-president; Janell Ross, "Hillary Clinton invoked 9/11 to defend her ties to Wall Street. What?" Washington Post, November 15, 2015, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/the-fix/wp/2015/11/15/hillary-clinton-invoked-911-to-defend-her-ties-to-wall-street-what/; Robert Scheer, "Go Ahead, Back Hillary Clinton and Forget All About Her Record," Truthdig, October 9, 2015, http://www.truthdig.com/report/item/go_ahead_back_hillary_clinton_and_forget_all_about_her_record_20151009; Noam Scheiber, "Hillary Clinton's Inequality Rhetoric Is Weak: No, we're not 'all in this mess together'," New Republic, July 9, 2014, http://www.newrepublic.com/article/118632/hillary-clintons-inequality-rhetoric-insulting; Donna Smith, "An Open Letter to Hillary Clinton from One Progressive Woman," Common Dreams, January 23, 2016, http://www.commondreams.org/views/2016/01/23/open-letter-hillary-clinton-one-progressive-woman; Yves Smith [Susan Webber], "Why Some of the Smartest Progressives I Know Will Vote for Trump over Hillary," Politico, June 1, 2016, http://www.politico.com/magazine/story/2016/06/wall-street-2016-donald-trump-hillary-clinton-213931; Andrew Ross Sorkin, "Hillary Clinton’s Comment on Jobs Raises Eyebrows on Wall St.," New York Times, October 27, 2014, http://dealbook.nytimes.com/2014/10/27/hillary-clintons-comment-about-corporations-and-job-creation-raises-wall-st-s-eyebrows/; Benjamin Wallace-Wells, "The Clintons Have Lost the Working Class," New Yorker, February 10, 2016, http://www.newyorker.com/news/benjamin-wallace-wells/the-clintons-lose-the-working-class; Ben White, "Wall Street donors seek to block Warren VP pick," Politico, June 20, 2016, http://www.politico.com/story/2016/06/elizabeth-warren-wall-street-vice-president-224489
- 15. Medea Benjamin, “Hillary Clinton Hasn’t Learned a Thing From the Iraq Experience,” Truthdig, October 29, 2015, http://www.truthdig.com/report/item/hillary_clinton_hasnt_learned_a_thing_from_iraq_20151029; Marjorie Cohn, “Want Endless War? Love the U.S. Empire? Well, Hillary Clinton’s Your Choice,” Truthdig, February 1, 2016, http://www.truthdig.com/report/item/want_endless_war_love_the_us_empire_hillary_clintons_your_choice_20160201; David Corn, “Hillary Clinton and Henry Kissinger: It’s Personal. Very Personal,” Mother Jones, February 12, 2016, http://www.motherjones.com/politics/2016/02/hillary-clinton-kissinger-vacation-dominican-republic-de-la-renta; Greg Grandin, “Henry Kissinger, Hillary Clinton’s Tutor in War and Peace,” Nation, February 5, 2016, http://www.thenation.com/article/henry-kissinger-hillary-clintons-tutor-in-war-and-peace/; Daniel Larison, “Clinton’s Reliably Bad Foreign Policy,” American Conservative, April 12, 2016, http://www.theamericanconservative.com/larison/clintons-reliably-bad-foreign-policy/; Jackson Lears, “We came, we saw, he died,” review of Hard Choices, by Hillary Clinton, and HRC: State Secrets and the Rebirth of Hillary Clinton, by Jonathan Allen and Amie Parnes, London Review of Books 37, no. 3 (February 5, 2015), pp. 8-11, http://www.lrb.co.uk/v37/n03/jackson-lears/we-came-we-saw-he-died; Lauren McCauley, “Critics Aghast at ‘Disgusting Speech’ Clinton Just Gave to AIPAC,” Common Dreams, March 21, 2016, http://www.commondreams.org/news/2016/03/21/critics-aghast-disgusting-speech-clinton-just-gave-aipac; Robert Scheer, “Go Ahead, Back Hillary Clinton and Forget All About Her Record,” Truthdig, October 9, 2015, http://www.truthdig.com/report/item/go_ahead_back_hillary_clinton_and_forget_all_about_her_record_20151009; Arnie Seipel, “Why Did Hillary Clinton Say The U.S. Is ‘Where We Need To Be’ In Syria?” National Public Radio, December 20, 2015, http://www.npr.org/2015/12/20/460489791/why-did-hillary-clinton-say-the-u-s-is-where-we-need-to-be-in-syria; Micah Zenko, "Hillary the Hawk: A History," Foreign Policy, July 27, 2016, http://foreignpolicy.com/2016/07/27/hillary-the-hawk-a-history-clinton-2016-military-intervention-libya-iraq-syria/; Stephen Zunes, “Hillary the Hawk,” Cairo Review of Global Affairs, Winter, 2016, http://www.thecairoreview.com/essays/hillary-the-hawk/; Stephen Zunes, “The Five Lamest Excuses for Hillary Clinton’s Vote to Invade Iraq,” Foreign Policy In Focus, January 26, 2016, http://fpif.org/five-lamest-excuses-hillary-clintons-vote-invade-iraq/
- 16. Nizkor Project, "Fallacy: Ad Hominem," 2012, http://www.nizkor.org/features/fallacies/ad-hominem.html
- 17. Emma Goldman, "There Is No Communism in Russia," in Red Emma Speaks: An Emma Goldman Reader, ed. Alix Kates Shulman, 3rd ed. (Amherst, NY: Humanity, 1998), 405-420.
- 18. Bruce Mazlish, The Uncertain Sciences (New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction, 2007).
- 19. Cory Bennett, “How the feds could have listened to Trump’s phone calls,” Politico, March 4, 2017, http://www.politico.com/story/2017/03/trump-feds-phone-calls-obama-235690
- 20. George Beebe, “Russia’s Role in the US Elections: The Case for Caution,” National Interest, December 16, 2016, http://nationalinterest.org/feature/russias-role-the-us-elections-the-case-caution-18756